Writing and Publishing Scientific Papers


10 Easy Steps to Help You come up with a Professional Scientific Research Article


Writing a scientific article can be easy or difficult, depending on what you make it be. Those who find it easy to write papers have steps that make it easy for them. As a scientific writing freelancer, editing freelancer, proofreading freelancer, and more, here is my take on writing science-related research scripts:



  1. Create a hypothesis (an original and plausible idea)! You can get this by reading the latest writings in your field;
  2. Develop your thesis! Find literature to corroborate your thoughts; this is easy if you used past scientific materials to construct your theory;
  3. List and research on materials and methods you would require for your investigation;
  4. Carry out your research, repeating the process a few times to make sure your results are dependable;
  5. Present a clear and concise report of your findings! (Avoid having to discuss your results when presenting them);
  6. Back up your deductions by advancing argument as to why your research was a success, or on the other hand, why you think your results were contrary to your imagination (here you might consider thinking outside the box);
  7. Provide a final paragraph (short and precise conclusion) that includes advantages and disadvantages, as well as perspectives;
  8. Proofread your work for any grammatical errors and missing or misrepresented material;
  9. Have one or two people, preferably with more experience (supervisor, lecturers, and senior students) than you, take a look at your work;  
  10. Format your paper according to journal instructions, adding any other section requested of you before submitting it. 



2 Types of Scientific Articles (A Scientific Writing Freelancer’s Guide)


A Scientific Article is a detailed exposé of a thorough Scientific Research or Review Material. The primary purpose of Writing Scientific Articles is for publication, and depending on the type of article and for whom (journal) you are writing, the guiding principles are different.

Types of Scientific Articles

There are two main types of Scientific Articles; Scientific Research and Scientific Review Articles.

1. Scientific Research Articles

Also referred to as an Original Research or Original Article, a scientific research article is a paper written after a thorough laboratory evaluation of a novel hypothesis, presenting original, unbiased findings. Constitutive parts of this type of manuscript are Abstract, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, Conclusion, and References. As an expert independent scientific writing freelancer, I do not like to use the IMRAD acronym because it leaves out the abstract, which is an integral part of an article. So, let’s use AIMRAD instead to represent each of those essential parts.

Some Scientific Research Articles have the Results and Discussion sections combined, while others have the Discussion and Conclusion sections as one, Conclusion being the last paragraph. Some other nonscientific parts of your paper, like acknowledgments, sponsorship, etc., are required in some cases, depending on the journal publishing your manuscript. However, that is not to concern you until publication time, except you have received an invitation for publication from a specific journal and are applying the rules while writing.

An elaboration on the Parts of a Scientific Research Article

Title: This is the heading of your article; it captures the entire ‘raison d’etre’ of your research. Most, if not all, journals require a title page. Contents of this page vary from journal to journal, but the title of your manuscript almost always repeats itself at the start of your script proper on the second page, or page one of your article as it often is termed.

Abstract: A scientific abstract is an accurate summary of your entire research. We already looked at this at length. For various types and how to write them, refer to the previous post.

Introduction: Constitutes an array of arguments that give you a reason for thinking that your hypothesis is worth pursuing. The section ends with a statement of objective.

Materials and methods: What materials did you use and what were the techniques you deployed?

Results: Here, you report the outcome of your research, irrespective of whether it matched your expectations or not. It is best to avoid discussing them here, except if the results and discussion sections are joint. However, there is a smart way of introducing your results using previous findings without actually discussing them; this gives you more credibility. This type of approach is widespread in the medical field.

Discussion: Elaborate on your findings, justifying them using previous literature, as well as giving probable causes for any nuances. If possible, make your results more credible with a proposal of (a) mechanism(s) of action that you or some other person could test in the future. Avoid inundating this section just with literature and instead focus on substantiating your findings more, momentarily backing them up with past publications.

Conclusion: Give a conclusion that relates back to your objective. With some scientific journals, you may also be required to state pros and cons of your methodology and outcomes and proposing perspectives, but not always. If no indications are available as to their requirement, just go ahead and list them to be on the safer side of things. Take care not to make it another discussion. One short paragraph is enough.

Note that discussing the advantages and shortcomings of your research can also be done at some point in the discussion section; this all depends on how you formulate it.

References: List all the literature you made use of here, according to the requirement of the journal you are targeting. Some journals now give authors the option to arrange references according to your preference upon submission. Giving you this choice does not, however, mean that you should mix styles; choose one and stick to it, whether it be AMA, APA, or others; consistency of style is always mandatory, even if not spelled out.

2. Scientific Review Articles

A scientific review article is an assimilation of already published findings, with the view of establishing a common point of appreciation and proving a point. In some cases, a review paper serves to determine the frequency, depth, and progress of research in a particular area. The results of such reviews often identify if it is worth pursuing more outcomes in the same area. The parts that make up this publication type are usually Abstract, Introduction, Body (contains as many headings and subheadings as you and your target journal would require), and Conclusion.

Some review articles require the writer’s sense of Critique. In that case, your review must state the facts, offer constructive appraisals, and provide your opinions and/or perspectives. The other type of review articles only requires you to put together some publications to prove a point. Here, you have no obligation to offer evaluations, but you have to avoid bias. Avoiding bias means you have to report contradictory reports to your claims, if they exist, and not just those that suit you. 

You might want to know what type of review article you need before you begin. Your objective, and thus, the topic of choice already makes that easy for you. If not sure, then you should probably consult the potential destination journals on what their authors’ requirements are.  


A Professional Freelancer's Guide on Writing Scientific Abstracts


There are, of course, different types of scientific papers written for different purposes. Widespread among them are Abstracts, Articles, Protocols, Summaries, Thesis, Presentations, Reports, Communications, and Monographs, existing in various forms. However, as a scientific writing freelancer for hire who has been successful in getting papers written and frequently published on behalf of myself and clients I will give you my understanding of what the different scientific papers are. This week, we’ll begin with defining and illustrating the existing types of scientific abstracts.

A Professional Freelancer's Guide on Writing Scientific Abstracts

A Scientific Abstract is probably the shortest type of a Scientific Paper there is to write. Its word count ranges from 200 to 250 words and typically consists of an introduction, an objective, a Method, Results, and a Conclusion, written out as material for Conferences, Workshops, Seminars, Congresses, and Dissertations. Most Importantly though, is that an Abstract represents a summary of an entire Article, giving Journals and readers the short but complete outlook over the whole project, while also easing the quick and easy classification of Manuscripts into Categories. These are facts that are commonly known to scientific writing freelancers who excel in the art. You should learn to keep them in mind once and for all.

Types of Scientific Abstracts

Another fact that expert writing freelancers navigate with little fuss is that every Journal, Conference, Seminar, Workshop, and Congress differ in the way they outline their requirements for an abstract. This fact makes it simple to digest clients' instructions. For your good, the following types of abstracts constitute different required formats:

1. A Structured abstract – this abstract has distinctly spelled out sections (Background, objective, methods, results, and conclusion) for readers to quickly grasp the storyline of a project without having to read the entire writing1. It usually contains between 200 and 250 words.

In consideration of the various types of scientific materials (original (research), review, and clinical practice), structured abstracts differ in form:

  • The IMRAD format (Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion) predominantly used as a requirement for journal abstracts; and
  • The guideline for reporting randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in journal and conference abstracts by the CONSORT group.

As advantages go, a structured abstract facilitates computerized categorizing and search, helps authors summarize their manuscripts, enables a stress-free peer-review process, and expedites assimilation.

Even though most journals require structured abstracts, there are some differences in their formats, and some journals use other structures too1. A structured abstract, for so many reasons, can be referred to as an informative abstract.

2. An unstructured abstractthis kind of material covers the various sections mentioned (or not) in a structured abstract but without parts; the writing assumes a paragraph form, the sentences describing each segment (or not). It is short and consists of between 50 and 100 words2. An unstructured abstract is akin to a descriptive summary, which lacks results and conclusions, but highlights the background and purpose of a project. So, a reader must go through the whole stuff to fully understand the methodology and outcomes. A descriptive abstract also makes it hard for peer-reviewers to assess papers quickly and renders computerization into categories a little more difficult.

3. A critical abstract – which is less popular than structured and unstructured abstracts is common in review materials. The writer gives a background, purpose, findings, and conclusions of someone else’ work and then critiques it by offering his own opinions in comparison with some other results.

Qualities of an Excellent Scientific Abstract

An excellent scientific abstract, whether structured or unstructured, should contain the following:

  • Introduction (a brief background that generates an objective);
  • Objective (a phrase explaining the aim of the research);
  • Methodology (an account of what was done to attain the goal);
  • Results (findings of the investigation);
  • Conclusion (inference to the results);
  • Recommendations (this is optional but could be helpful if you feel something can and should be done to make the outcome better); and finally
  • Keywords (between 4 and 6, occasionally more that define the major features of the work).                                                                    

A Freelancer's 'DO NOT' when Writing a Scientific Abstract

  • DO NOT include references or citations!
  • DO NOT reproduce the title!
  • DO NOT use abbreviations without defining them!
  • DO NOT discuss findings!

Instructions on how to come up with scientific abstracts require grit and patience; feats professional scientific writing freelancers have mastered in time through tests and active research. So, take your time too if you are to produce is a masterful piece and want quality publication. If it becomes too testing for you, remember there are expert scientific writing freelancers for hire ready to help you, beginning here.


  1. https://www.nlm.nih.gov/bsd/policy/structured_abstracts.html
  2. Nagda, S. (2013). How to Write a Scientific Abstract. The Journal of the Indian Prosthodontic Society13(3), 382–383. http://doi.org/10.1007/s13191-013-0299-x

5 Expert Tips on Writing a Scientific Paper (A Freelancer's Guide)


If you haven’t written a Scientific Paper before, then it might seem like an arduous task. Indeed, it is a complex assignment. However, when you understand a few basic principles, it would no longer look as daunting a task as you might have first imagined. The difficulty in Writing a Scientific Paper depends a lot on the type of material you’re composing. Some people find it easy to come up with revisions, while others prefer immersing themselves into experimental works and producing Original (Research) Scientific Materials. No matter the type of Scientific Paper you feel comfortable writing, the basic principles are all the same. Here 5 picks from Scientific Writing Freelancers on how to make your work look very professional and flawless.


1. Structure your Scientific Ideas and Outcomes

As a scientist or a science student, conceiving ideas for experimentation is a norm, running tests and producing results is spectacular but structuring your expression of the results can sometimes prove very tricky. How do you get people to appreciate your ideas fully? You stick to the simple steps, one of which is structuring your work. You always have the entire sense of your work in your mind, and you know the A-Z of it, but making people understand it the way you do is the most challenging part. Your ideas have to logically and chronologically flow, like a, b, c, or like 1, 2, 3, for people to understand them. How do you get this done? By expressing the right material in the right places. 

There is always the temptation to be wordy when passing across concepts. We think if we do not use many words, no one will understand us. However, wordiness is no proof of quality. In scientific writings, be advised to go quality, not quantity. Think of it this way, the more words you use in a phrase to elucidate your idea, the more you get readers confused. So, stick to short and simple sentences and avoid mixing tenses.

For guidance, use the following steps applied by specialists scientific writing freelancers: 

  • Set a Hypothesis for your scientific research and do not stray from it, if possible, till proven or not;
  • Scour the web for Relevant Scientific Literature (more on that later) relating to your hypothesis;
  • Write a Concise Abstract (more on abstracts in subsequent blogs), usually 250-300 words, giving a global explanation of your work;
  • Run the investigation more than once, recording your outcome without bias;
  • Write a detailed and reproducible “Materials and Methods;
  • Logically and Chronologically Discuss the Findings of your hypothesis and without prejudice or forgery, using the fewest words you can muster;
  • Draw (a) Conclusion(s) that is (are) a ‘Grand’ Summary of your hypothesis-related outcomes (proper inferences usually include the perspective of your idea and potential improvements).

Note: To avoid bias, you should keep in mind that your hypothesis is only a starting and guiding point of your investigation and your results must not always directly reflect it. Findings can either support or disprove your assumption. If your results do not confirm your hypothesis, give a logical explanation as to why or why not. If you find it difficult not being biased, then hire expert scientific writing freelancers to do the job for you because being objective is one of their many motos.


2. Produce Original Ideas and Write-ups: Avoid Plagiarism

The most significant problem in Writing a Scientific Paper today, beside falsification of results, is plagiarism. Most often, people pirate material not because they intend to but because of ignorance of what they are doing. To understand how problematic piracy is, you need first to understand what the word means. The Merriam-Webster dictionary defines plagiarism as “to steal and pass off (the ideas or words of another) as one's own: use (another's production) without crediting the source” OR “to commit literary theft: present as new and original an idea or product derived from an existing source.”

There are many ways of plagiarizing other people’s Scientific Writings. Some directly copy and paste, while others paraphrase without crediting the authors. I know others might think here, ‘I used my own words, so I did not plagiarize.’ Tut Tut! Remember the definition of plagiarism again? Yes, paraphrasing someone’s work is plagiarizing it because you’re simply using the source’s idea in other words. Plagiarism is a crime. So, be careful how you use materials from others’ papers.

Most people plagiarize because they are lazy, waiting until the last minute to do their write-ups. Writing quality stuff is not easy, not even for seasoned writers. So give yourself ample time to come up with an ‘Oh, Wow’ type of Original Scientific Paper.

Having preparation and writing time for your Scientific Materials is good, but there are other ways to navigate this issue, provided it is an acceptable format to your target journal. Remember, not only freelancers for hire know this, pretty much every expert writer does.

  • The first and most straightforward way to do so is to give credit to the source of your idea or writing. For those who copy and paste, as I did with the Merriam-Webster definition of plagiarism, you should present the view as a direct quote and then cite and reference the source. If you rephrase, cite and reference the origin too.
  • Another way is by using the services of the many software programs available online. They alert you to any plagiarized section of your Scientific Paper. Even the expressions that just come off the top of your head could see your paper signaled as plagiarized. So, do not be surprised if the system flags your work for using common expressions.

Keep in mind that some other person will give you credit for citing your work down the line. After all, there is no way you can write a scientific article without using material from other literature, one way or another. Like with Proofreading for grammatical errors, test your Scientific Writing for plagiarism before you go excitedly publishing them. Again, I would recommend https://app.grammarly.com/ for this purpose. Try it out and decide for yourself. There are tons of other software programs online, but you have to check the range of material it covers before you choose (more on that in subsequent posts).

Again, if you find too challenging to be flexible and original in your writing, professional scientific writing freelancers do not. Hire freelancers to scribble your manuscript for you.


3. Proofread your Paper for Grammatical Errors

When you finish writing your manuscript, reread your Scientific Paper several times to make sure it is grammatically error-free. You may think about having a second pair of eyes, if possible, more, to proofread your work. Supervisors, lecturers, and senior colleagues can always provide you with an objective criticism of your write-up. If not possible to get them to do it for you, get in touch with specialist scientific writing freelancers for hire. In this internet age, you might also want to turn to other alternatives, if the prospect of showing others your work frightens you. Make use of any one of the so many grammar-proofing software packages available online but keep in mind that not all of them can do the job for you sufficiently. Personally, I would recommend https://app.grammarly.com/. It has helped me on several occasions. Its free option provides a good enough help, but with a subscription, you stand to enjoy unlimited privileges. Grammarly makes your writing look very professional. It not only includes Proofreading but enriches your grammatical options among other things. It offers better alternatives for redundant expressions, and it keeps you away from plagiarism. (More to come on software programs in subsequent blogs).


4. Use Relevant Citations and References

How do you know to use relevant citations? Well, most scholars would advise using the most recent, the most important, and the most in-depth literature. I know most of you would ask ‘how recent is recent literature?’ My advice? If at the time of your writing there is enough literature material going back three years, then stick to that. If not, go back as far as five years. Staying relevant means, you are current, and being current gives more integrity to your findings. Use this method of going back years, gradually extending it by a year each time, depending on the rarity of literature in your domain, to find relevant materials. If you go too far back where there is evidence of sufficient trustworthy literature, you will put yourself in danger of redoing something that someone already did. That’s being redundant.

Of course, there are exceptions to every rule. When writing about ‘something’ that is novel to many readers, it’s always good to tell the full story of this ‘something,’ starting from the very beginning. In that case, you have to go as far back as the first time the discovery saw the day. You can then add further citations that have developed the original idea down the line. This chronology allows the reader the possibility to assimilate Scientific Writing thoroughly, and form their own opinions.

Picking up relevant literature requires accurate citation and referencing. You have to use these two correctly, and making citation and reference correspond to each other.

The instruction from many publishing journals is to cite ‘already accepted papers’ in some cases, which is correct. Nonetheless, do this only if you have entirely no alternative or if it is a precedent to the yet unpublished work. Also, avoid citing and referencing Scientific Materials that you have not submitted or that Journals have rejected, as well as websites and blogs. These are hardly dependable sources. Stay away from over citation, if possible. Stick to an exemplary 20 to 35 references.


5. Follow Authors’ Guides

Author’s guide here refers to either the issuer of your assignment or your targeted journal. Be it an essay, a conference, or a Scientific Journal; you always have strict guidelines to follow. Lecturers and conferences have more natural stipulations for Writing Scientific Papers.

As for Scientific Journals, having all the material you require to Write your Article is a good step but knowing where you intend to publish them before you begin writing is essential, though not obligatory. Necessary because it gives your writing the structure you crave, making it easier to express yourself. On the other hand, applying guidelines while writing is not compulsory because you could always enforce these rules when you have completed your write-up. The latter method is okay if you’re an experienced writer. Choose whichever way works well for you.

Author’s guides differ from one Publishing Journal to the other, and all have different rules. However, they are all geared towards publishing the most exceptional work there is out there. You will note that leniency for errors very much depends on the Impact Factors of Journals and the type of Scientific Research you carry out already gives you an idea of which kind of journal may be accepting of your work. My advice? If you are not chasing time, if you believe your work is premium, then it’s always good to run the risk of starting up with the higher-ranked journals until you get accepted at some point. You may quickly get rejected by those ‘big fish,’ but their criticisms make you better with time if you take them constructively. That is to say, they do not reject your work without constructive comments, even if they fail to provide revision. So, you can use these criticisms and reorganize your paper. If they keep rejecting, then, by the time you get to low impact factor journals, they’ll find your work worthy of publication with little fuss. (More on tips to Publishing Scientific Articles in a subsequent Blog).

If you pick your destination Scientific Journal, you will always find further instructions that smoothen your Scientific Paper. It is, however, good to know a few things before you even bring your conception to reality. Following these five steps and you can begin Writing Scientific Papers with ease. Keep tuned in for further tips on Writing and Publishing Scientific Articles.

Acquiring authors' guides is simple but following them is worth so much time and experience, with lots of complications. If you find this step challenging, hire freelancers to get it done for you quickly and expertly, beginning here.