There are, of course, different types of scientific papers written for different purposes. Widespread among them are Abstracts, Articles, Protocols, Summaries, Thesis, Presentations, Reports, Communications, and Monographs, existing in various forms. However, as a scientific writing freelancer for hire who has been successful in getting papers written and frequently published on behalf of myself and clients I will give you my understanding of what the different scientific papers are. This week, we’ll begin with defining and illustrating the existing types of scientific abstracts.
A Professional Freelancer's Guide on Writing Scientific Abstracts
A Scientific Abstract is probably the shortest type of a Scientific Paper there is to write. Its word count ranges from 200 to 250 words and typically consists of an introduction, an objective, a Method, Results, and a Conclusion, written out as material for Conferences, Workshops, Seminars, Congresses, and Dissertations. Most Importantly though, is that an Abstract represents a summary of an entire Article, giving Journals and readers the short but complete outlook over the whole project, while also easing the quick and easy classification of Manuscripts into Categories. These are facts that are commonly known to scientific writing freelancers who excel in the art. You should learn to keep them in mind once and for all.
Types of Scientific Abstracts
Another fact that expert writing freelancers navigate with little fuss is that every Journal, Conference, Seminar, Workshop, and Congress differ in the way they outline their requirements for an abstract. This fact makes it simple to digest clients' instructions. For your good, the following types of abstracts constitute different required formats:
1. A Structured abstract – this abstract has distinctly spelled out sections (Background, objective, methods, results, and conclusion) for readers to quickly grasp the storyline of a project without having to read the entire writing1. It usually contains between 200 and 250 words.
In consideration of the various types of scientific materials (original (research), review, and clinical practice), structured abstracts differ in form:
- The IMRAD format (Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion) predominantly used as a requirement for journal abstracts; and
- The guideline for reporting randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in journal and conference abstracts by the CONSORT group.
As advantages go, a structured abstract facilitates computerized categorizing and search, helps authors summarize their manuscripts, enables a stress-free peer-review process, and expedites assimilation.
Even though most journals require structured abstracts, there are some differences in their formats, and some journals use other structures too1. A structured abstract, for so many reasons, can be referred to as an informative abstract.
2. An unstructured abstract – this kind of material covers the various sections mentioned (or not) in a structured abstract but without parts; the writing assumes a paragraph form, the sentences describing each segment (or not). It is short and consists of between 50 and 100 words2. An unstructured abstract is akin to a descriptive summary, which lacks results and conclusions, but highlights the background and purpose of a project. So, a reader must go through the whole stuff to fully understand the methodology and outcomes. A descriptive abstract also makes it hard for peer-reviewers to assess papers quickly and renders computerization into categories a little more difficult.
3. A critical abstract – which is less popular than structured and unstructured abstracts is common in review materials. The writer gives a background, purpose, findings, and conclusions of someone else’ work and then critiques it by offering his own opinions in comparison with some other results.
Qualities of an Excellent Scientific Abstract
An excellent scientific abstract, whether structured or unstructured, should contain the following:
- Introduction (a brief background that generates an objective);
- Objective (a phrase explaining the aim of the research);
- Methodology (an account of what was done to attain the goal);
- Results (findings of the investigation);
- Conclusion (inference to the results);
- Recommendations (this is optional but could be helpful if you feel something can and should be done to make the outcome better); and finally
- Keywords (between 4 and 6, occasionally more that define the major features of the work).
A Freelancer's 'DO NOT' when Writing a Scientific Abstract
- DO NOT include references or citations!
- DO NOT reproduce the title!
- DO NOT use abbreviations without defining them!
- DO NOT discuss findings!
Instructions on how to come up with scientific abstracts require grit and patience; feats professional scientific writing freelancers have mastered in time through tests and active research. So, take your time too if you are to produce is a masterful piece and want quality publication. If it becomes too testing for you, remember there are expert scientific writing freelancers for hire ready to help you, beginning here.
- Nagda, S. (2013). How to Write a Scientific Abstract. The Journal of the Indian Prosthodontic Society, 13(3), 382–383. http://doi.org/10.1007/s13191-013-0299-x